The Met Office Hadley Centre's sea surface temperature data set, HadSST.18.104.22.168 is a monthly
global field of SST on a 5° latitude by 5° longitude grid from 1850 to date. The data
have been adjusted to minimise the effects of changes in instrumentation throughout
the record. The data set is presented as a set of interchangeable realisations that
capture the temporal and spatial characteristics of the estimated uncertainties in the
biases. In addition there are files providing the measurement and sampling uncertainties
which must be used in addition to the ensemble to obtain a comprehensive estimate of the
uncertainty. The data are not interpolated.
The data set initially runs from 1850 to 2018. Regular monthly updates will be added in due
Brief description of the data
The SST data are taken from release 3.0.0 of the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere
Data Set, ICOADS (external web page), from 1850 to 2014
and from ICOADS release 3.0.1 from 2015 onwards. From January 2016, these are supplemented by
drifting buoy observations taken from
CMEMS (Copernicus Marine Environment Monitoring Service).
HadSST.22.214.171.124 is produced by taking in situ measurements of SST from ships and buoys,
rejecting measurements that fail quality checks, converting the measurements to anomalies by
subtracting climatological values from the measurements, and calculating a robust average of
the resulting anomalies on a 5° by 5° degree monthly grid. After gridding the anomalies, bias
adjustments are applied to reduce the effects of changes in SST measuring practices. The
uncertainties arising from under-sampling and measurement error have been calculated for the
gridded monthly data as have the uncertainties on the bias adjustments following the
procedures described in the paper.
Figure 11 from the paper shows a comparison between HadSST.126.96.36.199 in black (grey shading
indicated 95% uncertainty range) and three instrumentally homogeneous data sets:
(c) ARC (red), and
(e) Buoys (blue). Panels (b), (d) and (f) show the coverage of each data set, with HadSST4 in grey
and the comarison data sets with colours as in panels (a,c,e).
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